Pages Navigation Menu

Microbial Diversity: sometimes you have it, sometimes you don’t

This past January I wanted to see what would happen to my gut flora if I adopted a hunter-gatherer diet for a week – eating the plants, animals and drinking the same water as the Hadza hunter-gatherers of east Africa that I was working with. Among other hypothesis I wanted to test, would immersing myself in this microbial-rich lifestyle increase the diversity of microbes in my tattered western gut? Below is a PCoA plot of what happened.

Think of a PCoA plot as one of those Christmas snow globes you shake up and watch the snow sink to the bottom of the globe. Since you can turn the globe and watch the snow sink from different angles, it’s 3D – and so is the PCoA plot below though flattened (2D) and view from one angle. In short, the closer the dots are together there more similar the bacteria are in those two or more samples.

The plot below is an animated GIF showing the timeline of my little experiment. The first three red dots represent my gut bacteria while I was in Arusha, Tanzania in late January of this year. Arusha is a large town just west of Mount Kilimanjaro where the project rents a little house for storing equipment and serves as our base when we are not in the field.  While in Arusha I ate some meals at the house – drank the local tap water – and eat the occasional meal at a restaurant. Food consists of eggs, bacon, misc vegetables, chicken etc – and usually a nightcap of whiskey or wine.

by_timelineSince I just had arrived from the US, the microbial community represented by the three red dots is a mash up of my US bugs I brought with me and the impact of the food I ate before boarding the plane, the funky in flight food, and the food and microbes I acquired while on the ground in Arusha eating and moving about this new environment. Either way, over those first three days my gut microbial community remained more or less stable (dots are close together suggesting no major shift in the composition of my gut microbiota).

The green dot represents my first day in the field with the Hadza (for this field session). At this point, I dropped the salads and booze and moved onto a Hadza diet. Since it was late January, we were in the wet season and wild honey and berries were plentiful. I also ate lots of tubers. During this particular field session, the Hadza camps we were working in had very little meat, save the occasional bird. In short, they were basically vegetarians! (As a side note, it’s important to remember that depending on what time of year a particular anthropologists or ethnographer visits a group around the world [now or in the past], seasonality will have a significant impact on the observed foods being eaten at that point in time [this is affect is more pronounced in lower latitudes]. That said, someone visiting the Hadza, say 70 years ago during the same time I was during this field session, would note that their diet was 95% plants. On the flipside, visit the Hadza during November, you would see lots of meat and a different picture of the plant:animal ratio would emerge. I’m just saying).

Drinking some of that flavorful baboon shit laden water.

Drinking some of that flavorful baboon shit laden water.

As the green dot suggests, my gut microbial community looks pretty much like my US-Arusha gut – but that was about to change. As the animated GIF shows my microbial community started to shift – or more specifically, reorganize. With each passing day of eating my new hunter-gatherer vegetarian diet and drinking some pretty suspect water (with the occasional baboon turd floating in it) – and cohabitating/mingling with the Hadza on a daily basis (and covered in Hadza Land soil), I started to look less western.

What’s important to note here is that my gut microbes didn’t start to reorganize during the first few days into a nice little cluster – like we see with my Arusha samples. Instead, I’m all over the place from day to day as my gut lapped up and sampled what was no doubt a mob of new microbes – some sticking around, some didn’t. Since the time points only cover a week or so its not known if 1) I would ever settle down – microbially speaking – or 2) how long that would take. I have no doubt, however, that it would – but not sure if I would ever fall into a Hadza cluster which at this point is still a long way from my moving dots. In addition to my chaotic gut flora during that week, something else and unexpected was happening.

Below is another plot showing how the diversity of my gut microbiota was shifting as well. The dots are organized left to right and represent the day they were taken. Here again you see my three red dots representing Arusha, then the green dot representing my first day in Hadza land on a Hadza diet. While in Arusha and my first day in Hadza land, the diversity of bacteria in my gut were more or less the same. But then it began to decrease. Around days four and five on the Hadza diet it bottomed out before starting to tick slowly upwards. This was totally unexpected.

3b30bb44bb846f0df8919098f39c3b4aBTFtEb.pdf-thumb

I originally thought that being in this new, microbially-rich environment, I would quickly acquire a greater diversity of gut bacteria. It’s also important to note that I did not participate in the butchering of any animals during this period, as none were killed. But I have no idea if the messiness of butchering would have contributed to my overall gut microbe diversity. In general it seems the diversity of bacteria I brought with me to the field suffered some losses – possibly some combination of flat out disappearance or at least lowered to levels not detectable by 16s methods. This could also be a function of diet – ie, new substrates for the gut microbes to munch on – or being nudged out by new members acquired from this new lifestyle. In either case, the chaotic reorganizing seen in the first graph above suggests that at least in the first few days my losses – for whatever reason – out paced my acquisition of new members. We know from looking at 100s of Hadza poo samples, that the average Hadza harbors nearly twice the microbial diversity as my US-Arusha gut. That said, even though my diversity was on the upswing by the end of the week, I had a long way to go before acquiring the diversity we see in the average Hadza.

Interestingly, there were some notable shifts in major groups (Phyla) of microbes. The graph below shows how – at the phylum level – three groups of microbes shifted. As you can see the Firmicutes (red bar) were up and down – nothing too exciting. However, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were on the move.

phylum

As for the drop in the phylum Bacteroidetes, the Genus Bacteroides seems to account for much of it (see graph below). As discussed in a previous post,  Bacteroides are the dominant group of bacteria in the western group. I’ve suggested that this is 1) not a function of our high fat-sugar diet in the west, but rather represents 2) our drop in the quantity and diversity of dietary fiber. If dietary fiber intake goes down, so to does the output of short chain fatty acids from fermentation of that fiber. This results in a less acidic colonic environment. Since many strains of Bacteroides don’t like acidity – and grow better in more alkaline environments – then my new diet of copious amounts of fiber from roots and berries would have made my colon more acidic and thus less inviting for Bacteroides. However, I ate virtually no meat during this period so that complicates things a bit – if meat/fat/protein is an important variable. Note our Hadza data reveal that the Hadza harbor virtually no Bacteroides – even during periods of high meat consumption. However, I did eat mountains of yummy wild honey – larvae and all. On some days I suspect my caloric haul from honey alone ranged from 1,000 to 3,000 calories. Some days I felt like I was going to barf from eating so much honey! Add to this daily handfuls of sweet berries, I was literally bouncing around the landscape.

genus stuff

The significant increase in Proteobacteria can be attributed to a jump in the Family of Enterobacteriaceae. This Family of gram-negative microbes include many harmless symbionts, but also includes some well-known and potentially harmful bugs like e. coli, salmonella, shigella, yersinia, and so on. By the last day of sampling, this group of bacteria accounted for an astounding 50% of all the bugs in my gut. Maybe I should have cut back on the baboob shit water – but not sure of the source, yet. At this point we aren’t sure if the increase in my Proeobacteria is harmful or helpful. Stay tuned.

Another interesting shift was also noted in the relative abundance of the genus Akkermansia. Akker has been getting a lot of ink lately in peer-review journals as its been shown to negatively correlate with obesity (ie, more Akk is a good thing) and other measures of metabolic health. As a mucin-degrader, Akker helps turn over the mucus layer lining your large bowel and as such, clings closely with your mucus barrier. My Akker levels went from low to none to being a dominant player (though fluctuating).

A new coffee-table-like book about our work in Africa will be available soon. Click here (http://eepurl.com/7X8YX) is you want to receive an e-mail when the book is available. 100% of the proceeds go to the research.

A new coffee-table-like book about our work in Africa will be available soon. Click here if you want to receive an e-mail when the book is available. 100% of the proceeds go to the research.

My shifting levels of Akker is interesting when you consider the gut bacteria of fasting/hibernating animals like squirrels and periodic-eating pythons is dominated by Akker – or at least Akker increases during periods of reduced nutrient availability. One of the things you quickly notice when on a Hadza diet is that your hungry – not starving or in want of food all the time – but you always feel a little hungry. Interestingly, the Hadza don’t jump up in the morning and start eating – remember they don’t have refrigeration and limited to no storage. Unlike us westerners who start eating literally the minute we get up – and graze nearly continuously on something throughout the day, the Hadza don’t.

I’m gonna go out on a limb here and suggest that the Hadza – and presumably our ancestors – were periodically fasting. No news here, but… I don’t mean starving (like argued in the Thrifty Genome Hypothesis) and I don’t mean going all day without food – there’s plenty of food in Hadza land. Plenty. But rather they don’t immediately solve hunger pangs by opening a bag of chips as it takes just a little bit of effort to get some food and sometimes you delay your desire to eat because of it. This little bit of extra time between mouthfuls is what I mean by intermittent fasting in the case of the Hadza and what I experienced when I was following the diet. Note that I don’t think my Akker levels had anything to do with caloric intake, as I was awash in sugary calories thanks to berries and wild honey (and fat from the larvae). Which is odd as Akker seems to be associated with how much is coming down the pipe everyday. That is, less substrates in the colon equals greater levels (relative abundance) of Akker.

So, unless my increased levels of Akker are being triggered by something from my new diet and/or somehow I was acquiring them from the environment, then I suspect my presumably beneficial increase in Akker had to do with my new foraging lifestyle. Makes you wonder if there might be something to the idea of intermittent fasting – but maybe more correctly thought about from a foraging perspective, not the starve yourself for a day that many put forward in a dizzying number of diet books. It’s also interesting to consider that my new high fiber diet, which was minimally processed, may have mechanically scrubbed more Akker from my intestinal wall than my previous diet. This scouring effect would have resulted in more Akker in my stool and thus more overall abundance. Just a thought – would be worth testing at some point.

Stay tuned – more experiments to follow.

*****
Shaking the tin cup: If you think our work in Africa is important, please consider supporting us – CLICK HERE
American Gut: Please consider joining the American Gut project as well as we attempt to map the microbial diversity of the human gut.
HUMAN FOOD BAR: We have also teamed up with some good people to launch a new kind of trail bar (think CLIF bar but more interesting). A new bar that promotes gut health. Click here to get on the list to be notified when it becomes available. Proceeds go to support research.
BLOOM: Aspects of our work in Africa will be discussed in my upcoming book BLOOM. If you want to receive an email when the book is available, click here.

NEW APP: We are developing an APP with colleagues to help you feed and nurture your microbiome a little better (think diet + lifestyle). If you want to receive an email when the Beta is ready, click here.

66 Comments

  1. Do most people really jump out of bed and start eating? I have never been like that in my life, nor have my immediate family. Maybe I’m just part of a small socially-isolationist family, but your statement definitely took me by surprise. Lately I start my day with coffee and several tablespoons of cream, and have another of those before a light lunch, or if I skip lunch (which is about half the time) just a piece of fruit until the evening after I’m done working.

  2. I’d be interesting to see a detailed breakdown of your specific diet (100% Hadza food? or do you eat Powerbars now and then? ), and also if you’ve had any stomach issues and for how long.

  3. These articles are so wonderful, thank you for doing what you’re doing!! Can’t wait to hear more.

  4. So how did these changes affect the quality of your digestion: frequency of bowel movements; stool consistency and size; any abdominal distention and/or pain?

  5. Thanks for the really interesting article. I’d be interested in finding out whether you were experiencing any changes in GI function or symptoms either during or right after the week’s stay with the Hadza?

  6. Thanks for this update, Jeff. I’m staying tuned. Oh, btw, will your new CLIF bar have baboon shit in it?

  7. Thank you for this. I’m curious if you use the same analysis techniques used by American Gut Project. I’m asking because my kit took over 6 months to process, how can you get it done so fast?

    • I assume the 6 month wait is due to the volume of people particitpating vs. 1 person.

  8. Not a medical professional here, nor a scientist, but I do have an interest in health and am intrigued and enthused regarding what I’m reading about the microbiome and its potential for improved health.

    • Re: Mary Ross’s comment….

      Me too, i am not a scientist nor medical professional. I lately started following research studies in human microbiota. The idea of “marrying” microbiology and anthropology research knowledge (as two distinct sciences) is genius!

      Another note…. elementary teachers who teach kids whos family regularly travel to their original country (kids from immigrant families) tend to get sick all school year around. This may indicate that we humans carry the local “fauna” of bugs with us (inside or outside ) all the time and so our body adapts (from a microbiology standpoint) to our environment. However teachers have trouble adapting to so much of a microfauna chanes all the time.

      • Not sure if this relates, but my experience with being around young grandchildren, and hearing same from others, is falling ill, something minor like a cold, is commonly experienced.

        A major interest of mine, and others I’m in contact with, has to do with the research regarding the microbiome, referred to as the second brain, and the brain, concerning mood, mental health, etc. We are a community in support of mainly family members diagnosed with mental illness, specifically Schizophrenia and related psychoses. We hold hope that the future offers more natural, nonpharmaceutical treatment for these illnesses.

  9. Love reading your experiments :)

  10. You are the gnarliest (aka coolest) dude ever!! I’m gaga with admiration.
    Thank you for your work.

  11. Awesome work, Jeff. Sounds like you were heading toward a case of kwashiorkor (environmental enteropathy) based on poor sanitation. Rise in proteobacteria may be due to an inflammatory state producing nitric oxide which collides with superoxides (free radicals) to form endogenous nitrates, feeding overgrowth. Or, was your diet very high in nitrates feeding gammaproteobacteria like E. coli?

    • Increased Akkermansia appears associated with inflammation. You’re fortunate to have had dietary prebiotics (oligofructose in honey) allowing growth, or the baboon biome may have reigned.

  12. This is great! But are you suggesting that short fasting causes more Akker, which causes weight loss? And do you notice any weight loss as you Akker levels went up? Thanks for your great work.

  13. lots of fantastic information here . I often wonder about the notion that evolution would favour an anti obesity factor of any kind in a human as surely super efficient conversion of food to fat has been a huge advantage for almost all our history -especially for us poor women who would almost always have been pregnant or breastfeeding -not to mention having to carry a baby around at all times while attempting to forage! Huge calorie requirement and stored fat an absolute advantage i would have thought. Fat generation is looked on in the west as ‘unhealthy’ as free access to so called ‘food’ leads to obesity and a cascade of negative consequences-howeverthe fundamental processes which lead to fat aquisition have allowed us to survive periods of fasting and as you hint are part of healthy body function. As for the baboon poo -it sounds to me as if you need search no further for your ‘nibble bar with bacterial extras’ -put me down for one of those.
    You and your pals are doing some of the most important work on the planet-can not believe you are having to crowd fund to continue. The world is crazy (but wonderful)

  14. Great timing for this post! I am participating in the on-line course Gut Check: Exploring Your Microbiome thru Coursera at the Univ. of Colorado, Boulder. This is very helpful in expanding our study if the effects of diet on microbial diversity in the gut. It would be beneficial if you could share this with the students and staff.

  15. You mention that you were hungry while on the Hadza diet and at the same time note that you were eating enough honey and berries to satisfy caloric requirements. Could it be not the fasting but the consumption of sugar that kept you hungry? Perhaps coupled with low amounts of protein? Also, do you have any new insight on why your Akker levels increased? All of us who would like to drop a few pounds would like to figure that one out!

    • I wonder also if all the fresh air, physical activity, and generally stimulating environment was keep him hungry. That’s how I feel when I go camping & hiking.

  16. If I ate honey and berries all day, I also would be hungry. I think it has to do with what the sugar does to your insulin. It would be interesting to see what effect a meat-based diet, eaten at the same intervals of time, would have on your hunger. I suspect you could go longer without thinking about food. You don’t need to be with the Hadza to try that.

    I’m looking forward to your next installment! C.

  17. What would happen if you just filled your gut with dirt from a shelter entrance, instead of fecal matter?

  18. Some commenters asked about changes in your digestion with changing diet, I would like to ask if you noticed any changes in your mood as well?

  19. Since you are working with Martin Blaser and his book places so much emphasis on Helicobacter pylori, I’m curious to know if you’ve sampled yourself and the Hadza for H. pylori. What about mouth, nose, skin, and other stomach microbes– How are you comparing with the Hadza there?

  20. Is it possible that adults may never be able to achieve a full Hadza (or ancestral) microbe diversity do to various changes in our gene expression or just over all make up as we went though ontogeny. That is to say since we didn’t have proper diversity or microbes while developing, our foundation (gene expression, hormones, over all body etc) developed into a form that can no longer support as large of a microbial diversity or maybe not a many functional groups of microbes. It would be interesting if a Hadza adult could switch to a western diet, lose his/her microbes and then regain them once back on a hadza diet more efficiently than a western adult trying to make the switch. Any way awesome blog can’t wait to hear more!

  21. you saw me post before :) oxalator bacteria, Akkermansia…..YEAST LEVELS I d like to see a real test of whats in the stomach LACTO bacteria , High GI tract..wise as well what there RNA18 scan is….. (yeast and fungus) im sure your 10x more then them — I cured my celiac problem , starch and milk….and I can talk to death ears all day……………… I have no lacto in stool samples yet , lacto and bifido is all I used and use probiotic wise..I dropped my yeast( food and suppliments)— my Akkermansia went…..up YEAST RNA18 SCAN,,,,,,lets see one….. my crohns and ulcer coltits decided to leave……………

    • Would love to hear more about how you conquered crohns and yeast problems!! Details please.

  22. how about a sampling —of there guts so we can see what up high too…..not the end result of a pile of POOP http://www.micropharma.net/technology/microbiome-sampling/

    • And do the RNA18 for your child ——–so you can see and look at the YEASTS… and the difference and role they play in the diet.. Up it and scan your childs RNA18 for yeast/fungus and compare yours —-we d love to see that

  23. I wonder how the Hadza benefit from these studies. Potentially these studies can help them make an easier transition as modern life slowly influences them and as their lifestyle changes. But short term, what do they get from this? Are they just extraordinarily good-natured people who let weird foreigners take swabs of their bodies? Or do they get something in return, like steel knives or cell phones or something they value?

  24. 1) In your last post you described taking a Hadza fecal transplant. At what point relative to the dietary journey described in this post did that transplant take place? Was it separated in time sufficiently to separate the effects of the transplant from the effects of the diet, or are we seeing the effects of the two things combined?? It would be more interesting, to my mind, to do these experiments separately in order to compare and contrast.

    2) Did you kill off your gut bacteria with antibiotics prior to the fecal transplant or add it to your existing?

    This work is fascinating!

    • Well said Beverly! I was wondering what were the results of the fecal transplant? Since they weren’t mentioned, can we assume it had no effect?

  25. The most exciting (for me) research and blog going!!

  26. You said that “Note our Hadza data reveal that the Hadza harbor virtually no Bacteroides – even during periods of high meat consumption”

    This is interesting given that this publication found Bacteroides in the Hadza:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3996546/

    Can you explain this?

    Thank you for your fascinating work!

    • Note Bacteroidetes is a phylum, I’m talking about the genus Bacteroides (note the spelling).

  27. Are you sure that the Hadza lack Bacteroidetes?

    In this 2014 publication researchers from the Max Planck found Bacteroidetes in the Hadza:
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24736369

    • Note Bacteroidetes is a phylum, I’m talking about the genus Bacteroides (note the spelling).

      • thank you. Interesting.

  28. Great blog Jeff. How much longer til you receive your test results for the transplant you did in August? Do you think the transplanted bacteria will make their way up to your small intestine? Thanks.

  29. Great info! I wish you had time to take more samples. It might make the trend more clear. For example, enterobacteriaceae was at 50% on day eleven, but can you explain why it was only 5% (or less) on days eight and ten?

  30. This is really interesting! I’m very curious about the increase in Enterobacteriaceae and E. coli species. As an intestinal flora therapists, I’ve learned those species as being one of the main aerobic bacteria which (the good subspecies of course) are essential to the human gut as they process / ‘eat’ oxygen. Thus keeping the intestine as anaerobic as possible, so other species like Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium.

    So I’m always a bit surprised people write off the whole species, just because there are a couple of rotten apples in the basket there – yes O157, I’m talking about you 😉

    Same goes for Bacteroides, it always seems to be noted as one of the less favourable species, whereas I’ve learned it to be vital. So much to learn and process still…

    Thank you for your great work!

    • Yeah, so it’s late over here 😉 Doesn’t do my English grammar any good, appearantly.

      I meant to say: I’ve learned about E. coli and Enterococcus species to be the main aerobic species that process oxygen, so the gut stays relatively anaerobic, making it possible for anaerobic and micro-aerophile species like Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus to survive.

      Right, time to go to bed, obviously 😉

  31. Wonderful information – from everyone. I’m interested in this personally and also relative to the biology in very healthy soils (very few of these around in conventional agriculture – not that many in organic farms either) relative to growing really healthy plants with high nutrient density. Interesting information regards to the importance of diverse fiber (organic matter, variety of cover crops, crop rotation).

  32. Jeff

    Thanks for your blogging and intrepid gut exploring! I approve of daily baboon poop mini FMTs!

    Are you also eating some of the baobab seeds? Perhaps these contain oligosaccharides that are feeding Akker?

    Hadza appear to have all the ancestral phylogenetic core microbiota that Julien Tap et al have identified.

    I have observed that people eating high dosages of RS2 (eg raw potato starches) have the opposite gut profiles as you are reporting as you live in Hadzaland. Raw RS appears to induce high super high Bacteroides, near extinct Akkermansia, Roseburia, Eubacteria and Bifidobacteria longum (a gut profile similar one characterized in T2 diabetes or IBD).

    http://drbganimalpharm.blogspot.com/2014/11/hadza-guts-have-ancestral-core.html

    Grace

    • Hi Jeff,

      Just wondering if you have any people participating in American Gut who have identified at primal eaters? Would raw meat help diversify gut bacteria after a round of antibiotics (meant to kill off blastocyctis parasites)? This of course would be in combination with lots of prebiotic and fermented foods. Thanks!

      Anastasia

  33. Hi Jeff and everyone,

    Here is a great crowd-funded, Indiegogo research project involving American Gut!

    This family of four did an American Gut stool sample, then a 6-week dietary intervention featuring Resistant Starch, followed by another American Gut stool sample.

    The results are pretty astounding! Across the board increases in Bifidobacteria and other markers of a healthy gut.

    Please have a look, we’d love to hear feedback from everyone, especially those that donated towards the project.

    Crowd-funded American Gut RS Project

  34. I had my gut microbiota tested via The American Gut project and have been too paralyzed with fear to do much with the results…which showed a complete skewing to the proteo category, and somehow my flora contained some species that ZERO percent of the rest of the tested population had. Having a lot of proteobacteria is correlated with cancers of the gastro tract, but I am not sure if it’s mainly just the “baddies” listed above that are causing it? Or even if it’s a chicken-egg phenomenon that bears more study?

    I have not even been out of the country! However, when my son was born over a decade ago, the hospital was kind enough to share an antibiotic resistant infection with me, and therefore I was forced to take extremely potent IV antibiotics. I’m sure if effectively wiped out everything good…and I doubt at the time that they told me to follow up with probiotics. I distinctly also remember having something very strange happen within a year or 2 of that- I was assuming parasite or bacterial infection, but still not sure. I would have “lighter than air” burps that were HORRIBLY sulphuric, followed by gastro symptoms. This phenomenon would come and go for over a year and briefly made an appearance in my toddler son as well…

    If anyone has any thoughts on any of this, I am all ears.

  35. Hey, I just wanted to say thanks for the awesome work. I’ve been fantasizing about doing such an experiment given the recent advances in microbiology and the amazing interconnection we have with the tiny world. This is the exact type of work that will get us further. Maybe there was speculation, but it was held firmly in place by rational assumption, hard data, and a healthy skepticism. Very cool to see what I wanted to see. Just awesome to get the sense that others want the same understanding and have the means to find it!

  36. I am shocked that you are not speaking at PAG conference. Why? I desperately wanted to discuss with you. could you write to my email?. thanks

  37. Did I miss a report? I wanted to know the outcome of the bum basting experiment! This was a good read too. Also, when are you doing the raw food diet? Would be interested to see the results of that diet.

  38. Hi Jeff
    Thought you and your readers might be interested in the newly released research findings from Murdoch Children’s Research Institute Australia (28 Jan 2015). Researchers have found that a combined delivery of probiotic (lactobacillus rhamnosus) and oral immunotherapy was a safe and effective treatment for peanut allergy in children. The treatment intervention over 18 months was oral probiotic treatment combined with an initial progressive daily dose of peanut protein in over 60 children with peanut allergy. Researchers found that over 80% of the children receiving the combined treatment over 80% of children who received the oral immunotherapy treatment were able to tolerate a peanut challenge at 5 weeks post treatment. Perhaps this is now an interesting development for the potential treatment of food intolerances with probiotics? Michelle

  39. Bacterial populations in the gut of diabetics differ from non-diabetics, according to a study from Denmark. In particular, diabetics had fewer Firmicutes and more plentiful amounts of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, compared to non-diabetics. The study also found a positive correlation for the ratios of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes and reduced glucose tolerance.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2816710/

  40. Jeff, I would like you to also look into dental microbes and the incidences (or not) of dental decay and gum disease. The mouth is the beginning of the digestive tract, and is just another niche for microbes to grow. Also, since your daughter has diabetes, excellent oral health is critical for her. It is said that gum disease is the sixth complication of diabetes.
    Cheers,
    Dr. Steve Edwards — oralfitnessexpert

  41. Jeff interesting life style you have not a lot of people would have the GUTS to do it.
    Good luck in your research…got this from Sue. Zak n Doreen

    • hey guys. hope all is well in canada….

  42. Jeff, what do the Hazda do about their babies and their poop/pee? Do they use a form of diapers or just clean up after?

  43. Your reasearch about gut bugs along with Marty and Rob is a Great service to mankind; in Africa risking Malaria, tsetse fly etc.
    Any further info on your Hadza fecal implant? Successful colonisation or no?

    Among many suggestions and questions I have :

    What are the Hadza hygiene practices re bodily and food? I presume water is scarce.

    Analyse Baboon gut biome for comparison?

    How does a 45yo Hadza adult’s teeth compare with typical Western especially molar size and wear?

    Are you on protective medication while in Africa?

    Cheers To your good health
    JK

  44. Does anyone have a contact name for the Human Food Project? I’d like to add it to our company’s donation match program. Thank you!!

Trackbacks/Pingbacks

  1. What if there's baboon dung in your water? | Mark's Daily Apple Health and Fitness Forum page - […] of gut bacteria But no. The latest post from the always interesting Human Food …

Leave a Reply